The problem of position estimation has always been widely discussed in the field of wireless communication. In recent years, deep learning technology is rapidly developing and attracting numerous applications. The high-dimension modeling capability of deep learning makes it possible to solve the localization problems under many nonideal scenarios which are hard to handle by classical models. Consequently, wireless localization based on deep learning has attracted extensive research during the last decade. The research and applications on wireless localization technology based on deep learning are reviewed in this paper. Typical deep learning models are summarized with emphasis on their inputs, outputs, and localization methods. Technical details helpful for enhancing localization ability are also mentioned. Finally, some problems worth further research are discussed.